Opengl ray tracing results in stretched image near the border

I have a ray tracer in GLSL which is rendering a stretched image near the border of the screen (refer to the attached screenshot). I have tried to render the direction of the ray as a colour directly from the vertex shader and I did not observer any faster shifts so the ray direction seems to be output correctly. The math of the ray march also looks good. I cannot figure out why the spheres are stretched.

Here is a working code which showcases the problem.

const char* vertex_shader = R"Vertex_Shader(
#version 300 es
precision mediump float;

layout (location = 0) in vec2 v_position;

out vec3 f_ray_position;
out vec3 f_ray_direction;

void main()
    gl_Position = vec4(v_position, 0.0f, 1.0f);
    f_ray_position = vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, -16.0f);
    f_ray_direction = v_position.x * vec3(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f)
                      + v_position.y * vec3(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f)
                      + vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);

const char* fragment_shader = R"Fragment_Shader(
#version 300 es
precision mediump float;

in vec3 f_ray_position;
in vec3 f_ray_direction;

out vec4 fragment_colour;

struct Sphere {
	vec3  origin;
	float radius;

Sphere[4] spheres = Sphere[4](
	Sphere(vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f), 0.5f),
	Sphere(vec3(5.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f), 0.5f),
	Sphere(vec3(10.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f), 0.5f),
	Sphere(vec3(15.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f), 0.5f)

vec3 march(vec3 origin, vec3 direction)
    bool  hit = false;
    vec3  position = origin;
    float total_distance = 0.0f;

    for (uint steps = 0u; steps < 30u && !hit; ++steps)
	    float distance = 10000.0f;
	    for (int i = 0; i < 4; ++i)
            vec3 position = origin + direction * total_distance;
            float sphere_distance = length (position - spheres[i].origin) -  spheres[i].radius;
		    distance = min(distance, sphere_distance);

        total_distance += distance;
        hit = 0.000001f > distance;

    return vec3(1.0f) - (total_distance / 20.0f);

void main()
    vec3 colour = march(f_ray_position, normalize (f_ray_direction));
    fragment_colour = vec4(abs(colour), 1.0f);

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <GL/glew.h>
#include <GL/glut.h>

GLuint vao;
GLuint vbo;
GLuint program;

void onDisplay(void)
    glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)500, (GLsizei)500);
    glClearColor(0.3f, 0.3f, 0.3f, 0.0f);
    glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 6);

void printError(const char* context)
    GLenum error = glGetError();
    if (error != GL_NO_ERROR) {
        fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n", context, gluErrorString(error));

GLfloat vertices[] = {
         1,  1,
         1, -1,
        -1, -1,
         1,  1,
        -1, -1,
        -1,  1

int main(int argc, char** argv)
    glutInit(&argc, argv);
    glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB);
    glutInitWindowSize(500, 500);

    glewExperimental = GL_TRUE;

    GLuint vertexShader = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER);
    glShaderSource(vertexShader, 1, &vertex_shader, NULL);

    GLuint fragmentShader = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER);
    glShaderSource(fragmentShader, 1, &fragment_shader, NULL);

    program = glCreateProgram();
    glAttachShader(program, vertexShader);
    glAttachShader(program, fragmentShader);

    glGenVertexArrays(1, &vao);

    glGenBuffers(1, &vbo);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vbo);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

    glVertexAttribPointer(0, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(float) * 2, 0);



    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
    glDeleteBuffers(1, &vbo);

    glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &vao);

    glDetachShader(program, vertexShader);
    glDetachShader(program, fragmentShader);
    return 0;

Because that’s how perspective works. Find any game (simulation, CAD program, whatever) with spheres and look closely at their outline when they’re at the edge of the view. It’s more noticeable with a wider field-of-view angle, but it’s true to some extent for any angle.

The set of lines through a common point which are tangent to a sphere forms a right circular cone; the line through the common point and the sphere’s centre is its axis. The intersection of that cone with a plane perpendicular to the axis is a circle. The intersection of that cone with a plane not perpendicular to the axis is an ellipse (unless the angle is so great that you get a parabola or hyperbola, which only happens if part of the sphere is behind the viewpoint).

I was only considering the intersection between the cone and the plane perpendicular to the axis, I skipped over how it would be visible from the camera plane. I somehow convinced myself that the code is incorrect as the spheres appeared too stretched as I wrote it all myself. Thanks for the explanation.

I have never used the forums, I assume marking the answer as the solution is enough or do I need to close it somehow?

Users can’t close posts. Marking as solution is fine.

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