Invalid examples in instance_node spec?

I have a question about the spec of the instance_node element in 1.5.0. On page 105 are two examples. The first example shows some node elements BESIDE a visual_scene. The second example shows node elements BESIDE a library_nodes element. This is a little bit confusing. according to the node spec a node element can only be in library_nodes, node and visual_scene elements.

In fact I don’t really understand the spec for instance_node at all. The “intuitive” way to use it would be to instantiate nodes (defined in library_nodes) in a visual scene. Like this:

  <node id="node1" />
      <instance_node url="#node1" />

Is that the right way (and only way) to do it? So a node in a visual_scene can only instantiate a node defined in a nodes library? Or can a visual_scene node instantiate another visual_scene node? If yes, what happens then? Is the node “cloned” so it is displayed two times in the scene?

I think you are referring to the details description showing the elements that participate in constructing a level of detail hierarchy using the proxy attribute of <instance_node>. This is not in the examples section and not a complete example itself.

That would be correct usage.

No because the url attribute is of type xs:anyURI, so the targeted node element can be in any document or database on the Internet.

Yes in that case the description is asking for two instances of the node (i.e. the place and all of the objects in it) within the visual scene. The policy of instantiation is application defined, COLLADA doesn’t impose one.