Picking object with Texture

Hello,

Below is my codes which works perfectly fine that I can select object with Stencil buffer.

[Vertex Shader]

#version 450 core
layout (location = 0) in vec3 aPos;

out vec4 aColor;

uniform mat4 projection;
uniform mat4 view;
uniform mat4 model;
uniform vec4 color;
uniform float size;

void main() {
    aColor = color;
    gl_Position = projection * view * model * vec4(aPos, 1.0);
    gl_PointSize = size;
}

[Fragment Shader]

#version 450 core
in vec4 aColor;

out vec4 FragColor;

void main() {
    FragColor = aColor;
}

[Vertices and Indices]

float vertice[] = {
    -0.2, 0.2, -0.2,
    -0.2, 0.2, 0.2,
    0.2, 0.2, -0.2,
    0.2, 0.2, 0.2,
    0.2, -0.2, -0.2,
    0.2, -0.2, 0.2,
    -0.2, -0.2, -0.2,
    -0.2, -0.2, 0.2
};

unsigned int surfaceIncides[] = {
    0, 3, 2,
    3, 0, 1,
    4, 7, 6,
    7, 4, 5,
    1, 5, 3,
    5, 1, 7,
    2, 6, 0,
    6, 2, 4,
    3, 4, 2,
    4, 3, 5,
    0, 7, 1,
    7, 0, 6
};

unsigned int VBO, VAO;
GLuint surfaceEAB;

// VAO & VBO
glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
glGenBuffers(1, &VBO);

glBindVertexArray(VAO);
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO);
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertice), vertice, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, (void*)0);
glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);

// EAB
glGenBuffers(1, &surfaceEAB);

glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, surfaceEAB);
glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(surfaceIncides), surfaceIncides, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

[Drawing codes]

glClearColor(0.65f, 0.65f, 0.65f, 1.0f);
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT | GL_STENCIL_BUFFER_BIT);

// 1st cube
glStencilFunc(GL_ALWAYS, 1, -1);

glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, surfaceEAB);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 36, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, 0);

// 2nd cube
glStencilFunc(GL_ALWAYS, 2, -1);

// Draw points
glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, surfaceEAB);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 36, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, 0);

[Select object with Stencil buffer]

GLint viewport[4];
GLubyte color[4] = { 0, };
GLfloat depth;
GLuint index;

glGetIntegerv(GL_VIEWPORT, viewport);
        
glReadPixels(x, viewport[3] - y, 1, 1, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, color);
glReadPixels(x, viewport[3] - y, 1, 1, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_FLOAT, &depth);
glReadPixels(x, viewport[3] - y, 1, 1, GL_STENCIL_INDEX, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &index);

glm::vec4 views = glm::vec4(0, 0, WindowWidth, WindowHeight);
glm::vec3 wincoord = glm::vec3(x, WindowHeight - y - 1, depth);
glm::vec3 glCoord = glm::unProject(wincoord, view, prjMatrix, views);

printf("Clicked on pixel %.2f, %.2f, color %02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx, depth %f, stencil index %u\nCoordinates in object space: %f, %f, %f\n", x, y, color[0], color[1], color[2], color[3], depth, index, glCoord.x, glCoord.y, glCoord.z);

However when the drawing goes with Textures/Lightings, I can’t seemed to select object with Stencil buffer, below is what I’ve tried so far.

[Vertex Shader]

#version 450 core
layout (location = 0) in vec3 aPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 aNormal;
layout (location = 2) in vec2 aTexCoords;

out VS_OUT {
    vec3 FragPos;
    vec3 Normal;
    vec2 TexCoords;
} vs_out;

uniform mat4 projection;
uniform mat4 view;
uniform mat4 model;

void main() {
    vs_out.FragPos = vec3(model * vec4(aPos, 1.0));   
    vs_out.TexCoords = aTexCoords;
        
    mat3 normalMatrix = transpose(inverse(mat3(model)));
    vs_out.Normal = normalize(normalMatrix * aNormal);
    
    gl_Position = projection * view * model * vec4(aPos, 1.0);
}

[Fragment Shader]

#version 450 core
layout (location = 0) out vec4 FragColor;
layout (location = 1) out vec4 BrightColor;

in VS_OUT {
    vec3 FragPos;
    vec3 Normal;
    vec2 TexCoords;
} fs_in;

struct Light {
    vec3 Position;
    vec3 Color;
};

uniform Light lights[4];
uniform sampler2D diffuseTexture;
uniform vec3 viewPos;

out vec4 FragColor;

void main() {
    vec3 color = texture(diffuseTexture, fs_in.TexCoords).rgb;
    vec3 normal = normalize(fs_in.Normal);
    
    // Ambient
    vec3 ambient = 0.0 * color;
    
    // Lighting
    vec3 lighting = vec3(0.0);
    vec3 viewDir = normalize(viewPos - fs_in.FragPos);
    
    for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
        // Diffuse
        vec3 lightDir = normalize(lights[i].Position - fs_in.FragPos);
        float diff = max(dot(lightDir, normal), 0.0);
        vec3 result = lights[i].Color * diff * color;
        
        // Attenuation (use quadratic as we have gamma correction)
        float distance = length(fs_in.FragPos - lights[i].Position);
        result *= 1.0 / (distance * distance);
        lighting += result;          
    }

    vec3 result = ambient + lighting;

    // Check whether result is higher than some threshold, if so, output as bloom threshold color
    float brightness = dot(result, vec3(0.2126, 0.7152, 0.0722));
    
    if (brightness > 1.0)
        BrightColor = vec4(result, 1.0);
    
    else
        BrightColor = vec4(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0);
    
    FragColor = vec4(result, 1.0);
}

[Vertices]

    float vertices[] = {
    // back face            // noarmal         // texture 
    -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-left
    1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-right
    1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-right         
    1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-right
    -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-left
    -1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // top-left
    
    // front face
    -1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-left
    1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-right
    1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-right
    1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-right
    -1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // top-left
    -1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-left
    
    // left face
    -1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // top-right
    -1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-left
    -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // bottom-left
    -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // bottom-left
    -1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-right
    -1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // top-right
    
    // right face
    1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // top-left
    1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // bottom-right
    1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-right         
    1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // bottom-right
    1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // top-left
    1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-left     
    
    // bottom face
    -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // top-right
    1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-left
    1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-left
    1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-left
    -1.0f, -1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-right
    -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // top-right
    
    // top face
    -1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // top-left
    1.0f,  1.0f , 1.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-right
    1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, // top-right     
    1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom-right
    -1.0f,  1.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, // top-left
    -1.0f,  1.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f  // bottom-left        
};

unsigned int VBO, VAO;

glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
glGenBuffers(1, &VBO);

glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO);
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
glBindVertexArray(VAO);

glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);
glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 8 * sizeof(float), (void*)0);

glEnableVertexAttribArray(1);
glVertexAttribPointer(1, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 8 * sizeof(float), (void*)(3 * sizeof(float)));

glEnableVertexAttribArray(2);
glVertexAttribPointer(2, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 8 * sizeof(float), (void*)(6 * sizeof(float)));

glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
glBindVertexArray(0);

[Drawing codes]

glClearColor(0.65f, 0.65f, 0.65f, 1.0f);
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT | GL_STENCIL_BUFFER_BIT);

// Bind Texture
glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0);
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture);

// 1st cube
glStencilFunc(GL_ALWAYS, 1, -1);
glBindVertexArray(VAO);
glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 36);
glBindVertexArray(0);

// 2nd cube
glStencilFunc(GL_ALWAYS, 2, -1);
glBindVertexArray(VAO);
glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 36);
glBindVertexArray(0);

[Select object with Stencil buffer]

GLint viewport[4];
GLubyte color[4] = { 0, };
GLfloat depth;
GLuint index;

glGetIntegerv(GL_VIEWPORT, viewport);
        
glReadPixels(x, viewport[3] - y, 1, 1, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, color);
glReadPixels(x, viewport[3] - y, 1, 1, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_FLOAT, &depth);
glReadPixels(x, viewport[3] - y, 1, 1, GL_STENCIL_INDEX, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &index);

glm::vec4 views = glm::vec4(0, 0, WindowWidth, WindowHeight);
glm::vec3 wincoord = glm::vec3(x, WindowHeight - y - 1, depth);
glm::vec3 glCoord = glm::unProject(wincoord, view, prjMatrix, views);

printf("Clicked on pixel %.2f, %.2f, color %02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx, depth %f, stencil index %u\nCoordinates in object space: %f, %f, %f\n", x, y, color[0], color[1], color[2], color[3], depth, index, glCoord.x, glCoord.y, glCoord.z);

What I get is always the last index of object whatever I select from, can anyone help me to fix my issue?

Thanks a lot!

I’ve fixed problem by drawing objects again without textures/lighting when user clicks on screen.
So I can find object under mouse cursor but it looks like Stencil buffer can only support range 1 to 255, it means that if I draw objects more than 255, those can’t be selected?

Is there any other approaches I can take? or to have workaround with current? :sob:

The stencil buffer is usually only 8bit per pixel, so yes that puts a fairly small limit on the number of objects you can distinguish.
One alternative is to render to an offscreen render target (using a FramebufferObject and attached textures). That render target need not store colors, but it could use e.g. a single channel UInt32 format to store a 32bit object index. You’ll need a different fragment shader that outputs that object index instead of color for this as well.

It’s also worth mentioning that you could just intersect the ray with your 2 cubes on the CPU. That’s likely to be considerably faster (lower latency) than farming this task out to the GPU.

Thanks, I will try FBO as well :slight_smile:

Thanks, will try ray intersection too :slight_smile:

i’m using the framebuffer approach too. i render everything into a FBO with an additional ivec4 (4-dimensional integer vector) attachment, and read the pixel under the cursor each frame … works quite well, you can store some information in each pixel, for example object ID / node ID / mesh ID / material ID. (its quite useful if you have scene graphs as models and complex meshes)